Robert Eisen provides the first comprehensive analysis of Jewish views on peace and violence, examining five major sources of Jewish thought - the Bible, rabbinic Judaism, medieval Jewish philosophy, Kabbalah, and modern Zionism. He demonstrates that throughout its history Judaism has consistently exhibited ambiguity regarding peace and violence. To make his case, Eisen presents two separate analyses for each of the areas he examines: one that argues for a peaceful reading of Judaism, and another that argues for a violent reading. The aim is to show that both readings are valid and authentic interpretations of Judaism. Eisen also explores why Judaism can be read both ways by examining the interpretive techniques that support each reading. This study should be of interest not just to students of Judaism, but to students of all religious traditions: the ambiguity concerning violence in Judaism is true of many other religions as well. Eisen's study therefore provides a model for analyzing peace and violence in religion in general.