This new edition of Portuguese: An Essential Grammar is a practical reference guide to the most important aspects of modern European Portuguese. Combining traditional and function-based grammar, the book sets out the complexities of Portuguese in short, readable sections. Explanations are clear, free from jargon and substantiated by examples. Throughout, the emphasis is on Portuguese as used by native speakers. This third edition: reflects the new orthographic agreement; includes an expanded section on verbs and pronouns, as well as a new section on syntax; provides authentic examples to illustrate grammar in context; focuses on Portuguese as used in Portugal and Africa; links to Basic Portuguese: A Grammar and Workbook, which offers a valuable set of language practice exercises; includes a detailed contents list and index for easy access to information. An important addition to Routledge's collection of grammars on the variants of Portuguese, this is an ideal reference source for the learner and user of European Portuguese. It is suitable for either independent study or for students in schools, colleges, universities and adult classes of all types.