In the last two decades major reforms have been addressed to the broad Italian Public Sector, requiring the introduction of New Public Management-inspired ideas and tools, thus calling for further research in this field. The convergence of EU Countries towards the Euro deadline of December 31,2013 has also accelerated the managerial transformation process, as well as the consequent deployment in the Public Sector of techniques and practices widely adopted in the private sector. This refereed co-authored volume firstly introduces researchers, students and professionals into the characteristics of stakeholder and governance structures in public entities, and then guides them into different areas and issues of public sector organizations. Thus, the book seeks to provide a portrayal of the main challenges affecting different areas of Public Sector in Italy in a longitudinal manner. Accordingly, the volume initially analyzes some of the issues faced by the State bureaucratic apparatus and Regional governments, and it later provides examinations on Local Governments, Provinces, Public Transports, Healthcare and Universities. The book is built upon several years of research and teaching of the editor and co-authors in the Public Sector. This experience permitted them in some cases to also examine - within the common scientific borders of New Public Management ideas - the interrelations of Public Management and Accounting, as well as Human Resources Performance Management. Written and designed to provide a cross-areas examination of current Italian Public Sector issues and challenges, the volume provides a comprehensive investigation of a single Country, and contains not only robust theoretical insights but also recent empirical evidences of different case-studies investigated by the co-authors.