Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Disease provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of all components of the Mediterranean diet on the brain, along with its beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. It covers topics on neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, (PD) Huntington disease (HD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also providing information on how cardiovascular disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome become risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. This book focuses on how the Mediterranean diet suppresses oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases as well as signal transduction. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat and processed meat products. High consumption of dietary fiber, low glycemic index and glycemic load, anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant compounds may act together to produce favorable effects on health status. Collective evidence suggests that Mediterranean diet not only increases longevity by lowering cardiovascular disease, inhibiting cancer growth, but also by protecting the body from age-dependent cognitive decline.