The tomb of Christ at Jerusalem was a vital influence in the making of Western Europe. Pilgrimage there influenced the development of society and its structures. The desire to 'bring the Sepulchre to the West' in copies or memorials shaped art and religion, while the ambition to control Christ's tomb was a central objective of the crusades. Western Europe responded to the loss of Jerusalem by creating a new pilgrimage to the East, by making kingdoms 'holy lands' for their subjects, and by creating new pilgrim centres at home. This book brings together social, political, and religious themes often considered in isolation.