In general, America's students are not faring well in science and mathematics. The chapters in this volume employ novel conceptual and empirical approaches to investigate how social and individual factors interact to effect successful math and science achievement. Each of the chapters is solidly grounded in theory and provides new insight concerning the integration of student level and contextual influences. Inclusion of youth from diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds is a salient feature of the volume. This is the 106th volume of the Jossey Bass quarterly report series "New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development".