Europe is confronted by an intimidating triple challenge - economic stagnation, climate change, and a governance crisis. This book demonstrates how these three challenges are closely inter-related. A return to economic growth cannot come at the expense of greater risk of irreversible climate change. Instead, what is required is a reconceptualization of what is intended by economic development and a fundamental transformation of the economy to a new green trajectory, based on rapidly diminishing emission of greenhouse gases. This entails a much greater emphasis on innovation in all its forms - not just technological. Innovation policy must be placed at the very heart of industrial policy and indeed of economic policy more broadly. Other parts of the world are also facing varying forms of the triple challenge, and while the governance challenge may not be exactly the same as for Europe and the EU, Europe is uniquely placed to take the lead in addressing the triple challenge. While this may well entail certain costs in the short term, it will undoubtedly bring considerable benefits in the longer term. Itshould also encourage countries in other parts of the world to follow Europes lead in this transformation process, thereby ensuring that climate change is kept within manageable bounds. Addressing the triple challenge would thus provide Europe and its citizens with a new sense of purpose, revitalizingthe EU and the European project over the decades to come.