The struggle in projects, ideas and symbols between the strongest Communist Party in the West and an anti-communist and pro-Western government coalition was the most peculiar founding element of Italian democratic political system after World War II. Communism and anti-Communism in early Cold War Italy enlightens new aspects of and players of the anti-Communist 'front'. It takes into account the role of cultural associations, newspapers and the popular press in the selection and diffusion of critical judgements and images of Communism, highlighting a dimension that explains the force and the diffusion of anti-communist opinions in Italy after 1989 and the crisis of traditional parties. The author also places the case of Italian cold-war anti-communism in an international context for the first time. -- .