This book is the fiArst scholarly study of personal names in Pakistan and is based on an analysis of names from all over the country, both from the early years and from the contemporary period. The only earlier study was by Sir Richard Temple in 1883 and the data for that came from East Punjab, now in India. Thus there was only one chapter on Muslim names in it. This work describes beliefs about names, onomastic practices, and changes in names during the last sixty years or so. Names are indexed with identity and reflect a personas religion, sect, class, region (urban or rural), degree of modernization, and ethnic origin. They may be markers of social worth or stigmas. In some situations they may well be dangerous and people may conceal their names or take up new names to avoid persecution. This study of names, therefore, provides insights into the way identity, ideology, and power are inter-related in Pakistan.