Which factors prevent a larger female participation in the scientific and research careers? This book analyzes recent data and figures about women researchers in R&D and Higher Education institutions, their motivations, the reasons and causes determining the still persisting gender gap. The various scholars suggest possible strategies for obtaining a better gender balance in the scientific systems, and highlight policy measures for institutions to ease the participation of women in science, research and technology studies and careers. The final aim is to contribute to change the scientific gender bias paradigm into cooperation between genders in science and to involve in reflection and subsequent actions not only women but the scientific community at large, institutions, national and European political bodies concerned in research and science policy. Sveva Avveduto, is research director at the Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies of the Italian National Research Council. Her main research interests concern science and education policy, and science and society issues. She is the leader of CNR-IRPPS research activities in SMART, RESPECT and EVIDENCE Projects financed by the European Commission. Lucio Pisacane, sociologist, is researcher at the Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies of the Italian National Research Council. From 2007 he has been working for CNR focusing on social policy research programmes and on studies on higher education. The book contains contribution by: Supakwadee Amatayakul, Maria Cristina Antonucci, Sveva Avveduto, Marco Chioatto, Fabienne Crettaz von Roten, Cristina Mangia, Aurelija Novelskaite, Nico Pitrelli, Lucio Pisacane, Kate Purcell, Ulf Sandstrom, Nikolina Sretenova, Christian Suter, Catherine Vidal, Alison E. Woodward.