This volume from the International Bureau of the PCA presents a collection of studies on innovative responses to the unique challenges of resolving large numbers of claims arising from common, often tragic, circumstances-mass claims. The mass claims processes discussed in this volume were created in the aftermath of war or other atrocities, and redress is often an important component of settlement for the victims. The authors consider mass claims processes both from a conceptual and a practical perspective through lessons learned over twenty-five years. This book covers innovations to speed mass claims processes by means of new standards of proof and the use of information technology, as well as specific mass claims processes: the United Nations Compensation Commission; the Austrian General Settlement Fund; the French Commission for the Compensation of Victims of Spoliation; the German Forced Labour Compensation Programme; and the reparations provisions of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. From a North American perspective, authors address the litigation of mass claims involving slavery under United States law, the United States Indian Claims Commission, and the successful completion of the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund. In addition, Volume 1 of the Final Report of the Special Master of the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund is reprinted in its entirety. The responses of the international community to current issues of compensation and reparations, the role of civil society actors in reparations legislation, and recent instruments adopted by the Council of Europe and the United Nations Commission on Human Rights are also reviewed.