Severe forms of the disease that develop in the early childhood should be identified. These are caused by anomalies of the vertebrae and structural defects of the thorax. If left untreated, they may cause a significant reduction in lung volume , functional disturbance of the spinal cord and the development of a severe malposition.A suspicion of scoliosis in a child less than 5 years of age is always an indication to refer the child to specialized care for investigations. Therapy with a supportive back brace started early enough may prevent the worsening of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis in girls and surgical treatment may thus be avoided. Indications for surgical treatment include correction of severe malposition and securing of respiratory function, as well as alleviation of back pain and cosmetic improvement of the back shape.