The key to transforming a society into what it should be is apparently linked inextricably to education. This book draws the attention of readers to the implications of formal education for the state as a powerful tool that can convert the mindset of the masses. The book is particularly pertinent in view of how education is being used and misused in Pakistan, especially with reference to religious education. The contributors subscribe to a generally positive view of education and support efforts at widening access to formal education both in the richer and poorer parts of the world. They recognise, however, that education comes with consequences. Some, perhaps most, of these may be perceived as beneficial, but some of those consequences are undesirable and can be highly damaging to a particular population or segment of a population. Thus, it is clear that while literacy in Pakistan has slowly but steadily improved, there has been a corresponding level of social fragmentation and dissatisfaction within the country. To illustrate their viewpoints, the contributors examine the impact of General Zia's Islamisation programmes on education in the 1980s. General Zia's government tinkered with education in such profound ways that those programmes continue to shape the scope of what is possible within formal education in Pakistan. Thus, this volume includes discussions of formal religious schools in Pakistan. The authors also examine the wide rift between the various state funded and private schooling opportunities available in Pakistan. State funded education currently lags behind the agreed goals set out by the UN in their Millennium Development Goals and this inadequate provision of state funded education has left a vacuum for other groups to move in and introduce rival pedagogical agendas. All of the contributions in this volume focus on particular aspects of education across Pakistan. Some are ethnographic and anthropological, some historical, some pedagogical, some are clearly influenced by social policy agendas. They seek to identify a number of very real and complex sets of issues involved in providing high quality and mass education across Pakistan. The language of instruction, the source of financing, the nationalist and religious agendas embedded within the curricula, gender role expectations and impositions, the historical legacies which have shaped the educational environment are all touched upon. Nestled in amongst the complex issues are examples of very high quality education and dedicated educationalists who achieve little miracles every day. Thus, this volume portrays a range of views on how education in Pakistan is, what it could be, and perhaps most importantly what it ought to be.