Graph connectivities and submodular functions are two widely applied and fast developing fields of combinatorial optimization. This book not only includes the most recent results, but also highlights several surprising connections between diverse topics within combinatorial optimization. It offers a unified treatment of developments in the concepts and algorithmic methods of the area, starting from basic results on graphs, matroids and polyhedral combinatorics, through the advanced topics of connectivity issues of graphs and networks, to the abstract theory and applications of submodular optimization. Difficult theorems and algorithms are made accessible to graduate students in mathematics, computer science, operations research, informatics and communication. The book is not only a rich source of elegant material for an advanced course in combinatorial optimization, but it also serves as a reference for established researchers by providing efficient tools for applied areas like infocommunication, electric networks and structural rigidity.